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Breed Guides

Our breed guide gives you a useful summary of the characteristics, personality and activity level needs of some of North America's favorite pets, as well as discussing the health issues your furry friend may face in the future.

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It’s so exciting getting a new puppy, but do you know what to expect as they grow? It’s important to understand how your puppy will develop so you don’t expect too much from them too early, and you introduce new experiences at the right time for them. Studying a few puppy training books will help you to plan your first year together and learn how to bring up a well-behaved dog, and here’s a summary of what to expect to get you started. Newborn – 2 weeks old  Your puppy is completely dependent on his mom, just able to suckle, sleep and crawl around enough to find warmth and food. His eyes open at around 10-14 days old but vision is poor initially. A small amount of very gentle handling to check him over is all that’s needed in this period. Transitional period 2-3 weeks old    Your puppy’s mom is still hugely important influencing behavior. His hearing and sense of smell develop and he starts to get his first teeth coming through. He learns to walk and lap water. Conscientious breeders will pick up the pup each day to check they are gaining weight and developing as they should, and to get them used to being handled a little.  Socialization period 3 – 12 weeks old You will probably take your new pup home at 8 weeks old, or perhaps slightly more. It’s crucial during this phase of development that your pup is socialized with people, other dogs, the home environment with its noisy machines and comings and goings, and the great outdoors. Your breeder should start this process. Stage 1: 3-5 weeks old By this age your pup can see, hear and smell pretty well. He starts to eat solid food, wag his tail, bark and play with the other puppies and his mom. He’ll start to try to leave the bed area to have a wee.  He’ll start to paw, bare his teeth, growl, carry things in his mouth and play prey-killing games by 4-5 weeks old. His mom will start to prevent her puppies feeding when they want to, and he’ll learn not to bite too hard when playing with his litter mates and mom. They need clear sleeping and playing areas so they can leave the bed area to relieve themselves. This is an important start for toilet training. Puppies raised in too small a space can struggle with understanding toilet training later on.      Stage 2: 5-8 weeks old By the age of 5-8 weeks of age weaning starts, ear and facial expressions are more obvious and it’s important your pup has great interactions with humans. You’ll see games between the litter mates, and will need toys to play with. Being raised in a breeder’s home is important as they learn about house noises and human activities. If they are exposed to kitchen noises, people coming and going, washing machines, dryers and vacuum cleaner noises, all the better!  There should be lots of contact with people of all ages, especially if they are going to a home with children, and they should be handled daily with at least 5 minutes individual attention separated from their litter mates and mom. Puppies are hugely curious at this age, although can start to become a little more cautious, and at the end of this period will come home with you. Stage 3: 8-12 weeks old    At this stage they are highly dependent on you, need lots of social contact and really want to please you. They become increasingly cautious of new experiences and by just 16 weeks old your opportunity to train your puppy to enjoy his environment and meeting new people is all but gone, as caution overtakes curiosity. That’s why it’s more important to expose him to new experiences now, more than at any other time in his life.   Play with him, teach him human games and to inhibit his play biting. He needs daily socialization, so get him out and about at least once a day to encounter the environments, animals, types of people and experiences he will encounter during his life. You could consider early vaccination at 6 weeks so he has some early protection, and socializing him with other dogs you know are vaccinated are great precautions. Carry your puppy outside so they start to encounter the outside world and put him down in areas you know other dogs have not been. He’ll need lots of reassurance and positive encouragement but this commitment to great socialization gives you the best chance of having a well-adjusted dog later.  Juvenile Period 3- 6 months old Your puppy is still highly dependent on you, eager to please with a growing awareness of his environment. Chewing behavior increases now as his teeth develop and so investing in a wide range of chews and toys so you can change them daily is a good idea to protect your shoes!   This is the time when training your puppy to have good manners is important as he grows and is able to concentrate more. You can start to fun games as a reward for a good training session. Socialization remains important so your puppy learns to cope with new situations.       Adolescence 6 months – 12 or 18 months old  This is when puppies become independent, sexually mature and more territorial. Chewing is still a big feature of their behavior. This can be the most difficult time to get through as a pet parent, and many dogs are given up for rehoming at this time because owners haven’t laid the ground rules and done the socialization and training needed to have a well-adjusted dog. Even if you have done the hard work, you can still wonder what’s gone wrong!  You are less important to your dog as they focus on the wider world, and hormone fluctuations cause behavior changes. They can become more assertive and aggressive and any issues surface now. This can be difficult to cope with as adolescence is a selfish time and you might feel you’re losing your relationship with your pup. Don’t give up on them, keep training them, don’t let him get his own way all the time, reinforce good behavior, be consistent and this phase will pass. You could shorten training session if things get frustrating as you need to try and avoid being angry with your pup. But remember, it is just a phase! Maturity 1 year – 18 months    Luckily adolescence passes faster in dogs than in humans so by the time your pup is a year to 18 months old you’ll be coming out of the most difficult phase. He’ll still be inexperienced and will fill out a bit more, but your hard work will be paying off and you should have a well-mannered dog you can take anywhere. Be aware he is inexperienced so you’ll still need to watch out for hazards and top up on training but everything should be a bit more relaxed now!    The first year of any young animal’s life is intense and full of development milestones, and it will be hard work. Understanding your puppy’s needs and capabilities, and investing time in their training and development will ensure you end up with a great addition to your family!

Periodontal disease in cats

Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases that affects cats and is pretty easy to spot and prevent. It can become a  severe disease in untreated cases, and cause irreversible damage to your cat’s teeth so it’s good to be aware of the symptoms and consult your vet if you are at all concerned.   What is periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is the inflammation of the structures of the mouth as a result of a bacterial infection. This disease has several stages and is extremely preventable! The first stage is merely a build-up of sticky plaque on the teeth and the development of tartar deposits(also known as calculus), as well as inflamed gums. Plaque and tartar are conditions we can suffer from too, and tartar is fairly easy to spot on your cat’s teeth as it is yellow or brown in color. It can appear first on the back molars and if left untreated can cause gingivitis (gum disease). Gingivitis is where the gums are in state of permanent inflammation due to the bacterial build-up on the teeth. If no action is taken the disease can then become full blown periodontal disease, which will cause irreversible damage. At this stage in the disease you cat’s teeth can start to come loose. When this happens spaces form under the teeth, creating a breeding ground for more bacteria. This can lead to bone loss, tooth loss, tissue destruction in the gums and the build-up of pus in the cavities between the gums and teeth. In extreme cases the weakening of the jaw can result in a jaw fracture from a surprisingly small amount of pressure. The final stage is considered to be severe periodontis, marked by bone or tooth loss in the animal. In this case, there is at least a 50% loss of attachment in the affected teeth, and the gum tissue is usually receding and exposing the roots of the teeth.   What makes this a common health issue in cats? Your cat may be more susceptible to periodontal disease if they are:  An older cat. This disease is more frequently found in older cats. It is also more commonly found in cats with the calicivirus, FIV, or  feline leukemia virus. Genetically predisposed to gum disease. Some cats, such as the Oriental short-hair and Siamese cats are genetically more likely to develop periodontal disease, regardless of life stage. This is also true of some purebred cats, showing that genetics can play a role too. Eating a diet that puts them at risk. Hard kibble is generally better than soft food at keeping plaque from accumulating. There are also special diets available that are designed to assist with dental health and prevent the formation of plaque. Longer haired or groom themselves a lot. The accumulation of hair around teeth can lead to more plaque forming on teeth.   How can I spot signs of periodontal disease? It’s quite unusual for pet owners to notice early signs of gum disease in their cat, and usually by the time it is noticeable the disease can be quite advanced. As the disease in its late stages is almost irreversible, it is important to get your cat’s teeth checked at least once every 6 months by your vet. You can look for signs of the disease between veterinarian visits, so it is caught as early as possible. Watch out for signs such as:  Swollen or reddened gums, that may or may not bleed easily, especially at the back of the mouth yellow or brown teeth and loose or missing teeth Smelly breath A loss of appetite or trouble eating and weight loss Pawing at the face Stomach or intestinal issues Drooling Difficulty chewing or eating Irritability or depression Pus around the teeth A sensitive mouth   How can you prevent periodontal disease? The best way to combat gum disease is to fight to prevent it in the first place. Visiting your veterinarian for regular checks and building good habits early on could save you and your furry friend no end of woe down the line!   Visit your local veterinary practice regularly Get regular checks. Some practices offer a professional dental cleaning service so talk to your local practice about how to arrange a session for your cat. This can involve multiple procedures to improve dental health, so be sure to speak to your practise about the specific issues facing your pet and the options available. Examples include: Inspect, clean and polish your cat’s teeth under sedation Prescribing antibiotics for diseased gums Dentistry work under anaesthetic to remove diseased teeth and repair damage These sorts of procedures will also usually involve a process of aftercare and your dedication to this aftercare process will be crucial for the continuing health of your cat.   Brush your cat’s teeth If you veterinarian recommends it, you may want to try to brush your cat’s teeth at home. While many may think that brushing your cat’s teeth may be uncomfortable for your cat, they can enjoy it as a new form of attention. If your cat does not enjoy it, ensure your vet inspects you cats teeth regularly and get them to clean their teeth under sedation. This is less stressful for your cat and will ensure the vet can do a thorough inspection and clean and give you full advice on how to manage the condition in the future.   Food It is possible to purchase cat food and treats that have been specifically formulated to help fight dental disease and if needed your vet will be able to advise you on what to buy.

periodontal disease

  Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases that affects dogs and is pretty easy to spot and prevent. It is considered an extremely severe disease in untreated cases, as it can end up causing irreversible damage to your dog’s teeth.   What is periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is the inflammation of the structures of the mouth as a result of a bacterial infection. This disease has several stages and is extremely preventable! The first stage is merely a build-up of sticky plaque on the teeth and the development of tartar deposits (also known as calculus), as well as inflamed gums. Plaque and tartar are conditions we can suffer from and tartar is fairly easy to spot on your dog’s teeth as it is yellow or brown in color. If left untreated this can progress to gingivitis (gum disease). Gingivitis is where the gums are in state of permanent inflammation due to the bacterial build-up in the teeth. If no action is taken the disease can then become full blown periodontal disease, which can cause irreversible damage. At this stage in the disease a dog can suffer a 25-30% loss of attachment in the affected teeth making them loose. When this happens spaces form under the teeth, creating a breeding ground for more bacteria. This can lead to bone loss, tooth loss, tissue destruction in the gums and the build-up of pus in the cavities between the gums and teeth. In extreme cases the weakening of the jaw can result in a jaw fracture from a surprisingly small amount of pressure. The final stage is considered to be severe periodontis, marked by bone or tooth loss in the animal. In this case, there is at least a 50% loss of attachment in the affected teeth, and the gum tissue is usually receding and exposing the roots of the teeth.   What makes this a common health issue in dogs? Periodontal disease occurs far more commonly in dogs than in humans, due to their mouths being more alkaline than ours. On top of this, your dog may be more susceptible to periodontal disease if they: Have a wider mouth with irregularly positioned teeth. Are a short-faced breed of dog, such as the English and French Bulldog, Shih tzu or Pug. Are genetically predisposed to gum disease. Some dogs, such as the Yorkshire terrier, Chihuahua and poodle are genetically more likely to develop periodontal disease, regardless of life stage.   How can I spot signs of periodontal disease? It’s quite unusual for pet owners to notice early signs of gum disease in their dog, and usually by the time it is noticeable the disease can be quite advanced. As the disease in its late stages is almost irreversible, it is important to get your dog’s teeth checked at least once every 6 months by your vet. You can look for signs of the disease between veterinarian visits, so it is caught as early as possible. Watch out for signs such as:  Swollen or reddened gums yellow or brown teeth and loose or missing teeth Smelly breath A loss of appetite or trouble eating and weight loss   How can you prevent periodontal disease? The best way to combat gum disease is to fight to prevent it in the first place. Visiting your veterinarian for regular checks and building good habits early on could save you and your furry friend no end of woe down the line!   Brush your dog’s teeth While many may think that brushing your dog’s teeth may be uncomfortable for your dog, many dogs enjoy it as a new form of attention. If your dog does not enjoy it, consider building in a reward system to make it more manageable. Be sure to use special toothpaste that is formulated for dogs, as they have different mouth chemistry from humans!   Visit your local veterinary practice regularly Get regular checks and some practices offer a professional dental cleaning service so talk to your local practice about how to arrange a session for your dog.   Toys and Treats Give your dog chew toys. The chewing action will help prevent the build-up of plaque and tartar. Some chew treats come treated with enzymes specifically added to help reduce the formation of tartar, so they can be helpful. However, these toys should not replace brushing, but they are a good supplementary form of care for your pet, as well as a great treat!   Food It is possible to purchase dog food that has been specifically formulated to help fight dental disease and if needed your vet will be able to advise you on what to buy.